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Yuri Gorshkov
Yuri Gorshkov


Many system administrators of Linux systems tend to configure programs or scripts to run under the root user since they might require certain system permissions to function correctly. If these programs or scripts are misconfigured and allow other users to modify them, an attacker could execute a command under the root privileges.


Previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which were distributed with SysV init or Upstart, used init scripts located in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory. These init scripts were typically written in Bash, and allowed the system administrator to control the state of services and daemons in their system. In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, these init scripts have been replaced with service units.

Specific written identification procedures ensure appropriate identification of native/heritage speakers based on objective criteria such as a student's Home Language Survey, transcript analysis, and/or a common student interview/questionnaire as is applicable. A PWCS pre-assessment allows teachers to determine each student's skill level and appropriate placement, or a Placement Test should be administered to all students prior to being put into a course. Students entering the fluent speakers sequence having started the traditional Spanish courses for non-native/heritage speakers, should also be assessed prior to placement. Even if a student were in regular/traditional Spanish 1 and 2, it is recommended to place them in SFS 1.

The AP Spanish Literature course is designed to be comparable to a third-year college/university course on Peninsular and Hispanic literature. The course will guide students to acquire sufficient proficiency in Spanish language to read, understand, and discuss selected works from both Peninsular and Hispanic literature. Throughout the course students will do close readings from all genres, including poetry, that they will analyze orally and in writing. They will also compose expository essays on related topics. The critical reading of literature develops an understanding not only of linguistic complexity and cultural identity, but also of certain universal human truths. The student will learn and use some practical and necessary strategies to include expressing his/her ideas through timed writings, identifying the key features and elements of a text, detecting themes, comparing and contrasting, composing one's thoughts, writing an outline, brainstorming in small groups, and fine-tuning language skills. These skills of critical thinking and writing in Spanish will serve the students not only in their college years, but also in their chosen careers. Students are required to take the AP Language Examination which is administered in May.

Once administrative access to the BMC is obtained, there are a number of methods available that can be used to gain access to the host operating system. The most direct path is to abuse the BMCs KVM functionality and reboot the host to a root shell (init=/bin/sh in GRUB) or specify a rescue disk as a virtual CD-ROM and boot to that. Once raw access to the host's disk is obtained, it is trivial to introduce a backdoor, copy data from the hard drive, or generally do anything needing doing as part of the security assessment. The big downside, of course, is that the host has to be rebooted to use this method. Gaining access to the host running is much trickier and depends on what the host is running. If the physical console of the host is left logged in, it becomes trivial to hijack this using the built-in KVM functionality. The same applies to serial consoles - if the serial port is connected to an authenticated session, the BMC may allow this port to be hijacked using the ipmitool interface for serial-over-LAN (sol). One path that still needs more research is abusing access to shared hardware, such as the i2c bus and the Super I/O chip. 041b061a72


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